Market share, in strategic management and marketing, is the percentage or proportion of the total available market or market segment that is being serviced by a company. It can be expressed as a company's sales revenue (from that market) divided by the total sales revenue available in that market.

It can also be expressed as a company's unit sales volume (in a market) divided by the total volume of units sold in that market. It is generally necessary to commission market research (generally desk/secondary research, although sometimes primary research) to estimate the total market size and a company's market share.

Strategic management is the highest level of managerial activity. Strategies are typically planned, crafted or guided by the Chief Executive Officer, approved or authorized by the Board of directors, and then implemented under the supervision of the organizations top management team or senior executives. Strategic management provides overall direction to the enterprise and is closely related to the field of Organization Studies.

In the field of business administration it is useful to talk about strategic alignment between the organization and its environment or strategic consistency According to Arieu (2007), there is strategic consistency when the actions of an organization are consistent with the expectations of management, and these in turn are with the market and the context

Market research is generally either primary or secondary. In secondary research, the company uses information compiled from other sources that appears applicable to a new or existing product. The advantages of secondary research are that it is relatively cheap and easily accessible.

Disadvantages of secondary research are that it is often not specific to your area of research and the data used can be biased and is difficult to validate. Primary market research involves testing such as focus groups, surveys, field tests, interviews or observation, conducted or tailored specifically to that product.

Pricing objectives or goals give direction to the whole pricing process. Determining what your objectives are is the first step in pricing. When deciding on pricing objectives you must consider: 1) the overall financial, marketing, and strategic objectives of the company; 2) the objectives of your product or brand 3) consumer price elasticity and price points and 4) the resources you have available.

Market segmentation is the process of classifying a market into distinct subsets (segments) that behave in similar ways or have similar needs. The segmentation process in itself consists of segment identification, segment characterization, segment evaluation and target segment selection.

If each segment is fairly homogeneous in its needs and attitudes, it is likely to respond similarly to a given marketing strategy. That is, they are likely to have similar feelings and ideas about a marketing mix comprising a given product or service, sold at a given price, and distributed and promoted in a certain way.

In finance, rate of return (ROR), also known as return on investment (ROI), rate of profit or sometimes just return, is the ratio of money gained or lost (realized or unrealized) on an investment relative to the amount of money invested. The amount of money gained or lost may be referred to as interest, profit/loss, gain/loss, or net income/loss. The money invested may be referred to as the asset, capital, principal, or the cost basis of the investment. ROI is usually expressed as a percentage rather than a fraction

History has shown that the price of shares and other assets is an important part of the dynamics of economic activity, and can influence or be an indicator of social mood. An economy where the stock market is on the rise is considered to be an up coming economy. In fact, the stock market is often considered the primary indicator of a country's economic strength and development.

Rising share prices, for instance, tend to be associated with increased business investment and vice versa. Share prices also affect the wealth of households and their consumption. Therefore, central banks tend to keep an eye on the control and behavior of the stock market and, in general, on the smooth operation of financial system functions. Financial stability is the raison detre of central banks.